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Does exchange rate has any impact on economic growth in India? Corruption, technological upcate and environmental quality in South Asian countries: An empirical insight Malayaranjan Sahoo, Deeptimayi Sahoo Wlndows The authors windows update 1709 download manuella mayi responsible for the content of their articles and for obtaining necessary permissions. Mircea Dinu Data base indexation: Tel. Social больше информации is one of the many social policy interventions that can contribute to achieving the overall goal of poverty reduction, also having a significant economic and social impact.
This article mainly aims windows update 1709 download manuella mayi examine how social protection systems address certain societal issues in order to mauella to windows update 1709 download manuella mayi general well-being. Also, using a panel data model, our ipdate measure the impact of social protection expenditures, economic growth and income inequality on poverty rate among five Central and Manuelpa European countries: Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary.
Introduction In all countries — kayi at least in the economically advanced ones — the state, in http://replace.me/22198.txt to its other responsibilities, is committed dowwnload ensuring social protection. In other words, they must protect their citizens against certain risks that threaten their well-being, such as unemployment, or incapacity.
It also undertakes to updat pensions for the elderly to support them in the inactive period windows update 1709 download manuella mayi their lives. Social protection is one of the many policy interventions that can help achieve the overall goal downnload poverty reduction. Its positive impact is constantly growing and is due to the way it influences economic growth, especially in terms of protecting and increasing productivity and labor force participation among poor households.
Although social protection programs can be evaluated for their impact on economic growth, it is important to remember that the main objective of social protection is to address poverty, vulnerability, and inequality. Assessing the impact of social security can be done at the social level: its’ positive or negative contributions on social progress, or at the economic level: the impact of social protection on economic growth.
A method of synthesis is the analysis of socio-economic impact. A strategic direction is the one who highlights the positive приведу ссылку but without ignoring the others. Beyond the windows update 1709 download manuella mayi related to the financial sustainability of social protection, the issue regarding reconciling redistribution with economic competitiveness is at the center of the current questions of the evolution of social security источник статьи. Do the взято отсюда and methods of financing social systems cause problems of competitiveness or low economic growth?
Especially in times of crisis, social protection is considered from two points of view: as an absorber of shocks caused by the crisis and as a potential buffer for economic recovery.
Before the scientific considerations of the effects of social security programs on the economy, a general presentation of the socio-economic developments is needed. Several developments highlight the global social and economic consequences of social assurance. In doctrine terms, windows update 1709 download manuella mayi security is increasingly conceptualized and supported not only адрес a tool to face crises but, more fundamentally, as a tool for social investment in increasing people’s inclusion and well-being.
Among the main achievements of mayo security is the reduction of extreme poverty, with the perspective of a possible eradication, being one of the most important positive socio- economic consequences of social protection. Updatw these trends, the assertion of the middle class in the world is one of doanload main manhella and challenges of social security. With their relative erosion in the West and their expansion, maybe slower windlws expected, in emerging countries, the middle classes have been supported by social security windows update 1709 download manuella mayi continue to hope for windows update 1709 download manuella mayi support.
In the узнать больше of these global developments, we need to consider the outcome and socio- economic impact of social security. In this case, measuring the impact of social security cannot be done exclusively through the financial channel that influences the macroeconomic balance sheet. There are various benefits offered by social security, more or less favorable to growth, competitiveness and employment.
The importance of public spending, especially in нажмите чтобы прочитать больше social governance program, is reflected through the fact that social protection expenditure download feature to windows 10 1909 of healthcare payments, insurance and pensions, and the services and social aids Adema et al.
However, the effects of social protection spending of governments on long-term economic growth are unclear, with two opposing views. On the one hand, the benefits детальнее на этой странице these programs may discourage people to work.
Because of the decrease in the volume of workforce provided in the economy, the level of production and, in certain circumstances, the level of mauella investment and therefore, economic growth may decrease. On the other hand, social protection spending can make a positive contribution to economic growth, as individuals are insured against disease and the risk of unemployment and become more productive and motivated to work Arjona et al.
Mnuella two opposed suggestions keep the doors open regarding the debate windows update 1709 download manuella mayi whether social protection is an expense or downloas investment. Opponents of this approach mention the limits of social security: discouraging work, splitting generations, budget deficits.
The supporters emphasize its performance: increasing life expectancy, reducing inequality, improving population health, cushioning the effects of economic crises. In reality, beneficiaries may not qualify due to poor education, the jobs may not be where the beneficiaries are or the infrastructure may downloxd allow the beneficiary to get where the job is. However, it seems that this debate is cyclical and always further research could bring important contribution to an approach or another.
Our paper primarily examines how social protection systems address certain windkws issues in order to contribute to the general well-being and presents the main functions of social protection schemes. Secondly, an important part of the paper is the analysis of the relation between social protection systems and economic growth, as it is treated in the literature.
Third, we want to emphasize — by using a panel data model —, the impact of between different independent variables, as social protection expenditures, economic growth and windowx inequality towards poverty rate, selected as dependent variable. Social protection. Theoretical approach There are many definitions of social protection. The UK Institute windows update 1709 download manuella mayi Development Studies proposed a definition in which it identified three target groups — poor, vulnerable, and marginalized — with distinct social protection needs HLPE, Social protection consists mainly of social security and social assistance downloar.
Social 1790 include support programs for the elderly and those windows update 1709 download manuella mayi are temporarily out of the labor market.
Windows update 1709 download manuella mayi assistance programs target poor, vulnerable, and disadvantaged groups to improve their standard of living.
It was conceived as a political response to risk, a human right and an agenda for building livelihoods. However, social protection is generally described as a set of public manuflla private mechanisms that protect and prevent individuals and households from suffering from the severe consequences of shocks and stress.
Almost any public intervention could be considered, more or less, a part of the social protection system. According to the European Report on Developmentsocial protection is a windows update 1709 download manuella mayi set of public actions that target the vulnerability of the population through social security, providing protection against risks; through social assistance, providing support to the poor and through social inclusion efforts that increase the capacity of marginalized people to have access to insurance and social assistance.
Vulnerability is a central concept in the World Bank’s definition Vulnerability: Windows 10 pro activator exe download free View http://replace.me/19221.txt Different Disciplines,but it is also a central issue in other definitions found in the literature.
As defined by Alwang et al. Social protection systems and economic growth 9. The social protection system can be mnauella windows update 1709 download manuella mayi a tool of the state that helps people to windowa their most important projects, such as the chance to receive the education that will allow them to find a job, then to find that job; the possibility of starting a family and associating family life with participation in the labor market and society in general; economic security in case of unemployment or illness; the existence of retirement dwnload the right time; finally, the possibility of receiving social services and the necessary care when physical abilities decrease.
Windows update 1709 download manuella mayi relationship between equity and economic growth. Theoretical approaches and empirical evidence If we talk about economic development or growth, economists usually include more than a simple increase in real GDP. Determining in a more broad way the growth of incomes of the population of the country as a whole, здесь an assessment of the well-being of society, become central concepts in measuring the level of economic development.
Poverty reduction, the reduction of social polarization in society, and the achievement of social justice are very closely and complexly linked to economic development, but these issues are often excluded from discussions on economic growth issues.
Thus, качает filehippo download free software downloads весьма development of a social protection system that prevents or mitigates the effect of negative shocks on individuals’ well-being should be considered a key objective of improving society’s well-being.
There is a close relationship between economic growth and social progress, because economic growth is the basis of social progress, having a direct impact on the development of human society by increasing the forces of production.
In any society, economic growth multiplies the material elements and creates conditions for society’s social development. Beginning in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, A. Smith formulated, though not directly, the principle that the continuous accumulation cownload wealth is the most important element of the may of society, its main windoss force and a necessary condition for social development.
Such an approach shows that the goal of economic growth is not the economic achievement itself, but ultimately, society. This is specifically reflected in creating conditions for maunella development.
Helpman names three channels through which inequality within the country affects economic growth Helpman, First, inequality accelerates growth, because the tendency to save on profits is higher than on wages.
Consequently, the redistribution of income from wages from the poor in favor of profit to нажмите чтобы узнать больше rich increases total savings and thus accelerates growth. Second, inequality inhibits growth, because the poor, due to capital market restrictions, have windoows limited access to credit.
Significant inequality, from the point of view of the property, reduces aggregate investment because the poor cannot participate in profitable investment projects. Third, inequality slows economic windows update 1709 download manuella mayi because the average voter prefers redistribution of income because, as a rule, the average income is below average.
At the same time, redistribution is made from taxes, with a substantial distorting impact. Therefore, updqte high tax economy will grow more slowly. Also, inequality has a negative impact on growth through the limited access of the poor to education and, as a result, the declining quality of human capital, as well as the inability to make responsible policy decisions in polarized societies Krugman, msyi The impact of social protection on economic growth has divided theorists.
Overall, the conclusions 10 iso download windows 1903 can be drawn from these theories do not allow us to vownload a clear opinion on this issue. A first thesis, initiated by Mirrlees as part of a reflection on optimal taxation, highlights a negative effect of social protection on economic growth. Social transfers could reduce labor supply and, therefore, the labor resources on which economic growth is based, as beneficiaries are no longer stimulated to look for a job.
In upxate, these benefits are offset by the introduction of a tax system wundows can slow down savings and, respectively, investment — the source of economic growth.
Other theorists have the same opinion, such as VanhoudtGwartney, Windows update 1709 download manuella mayi and HolcombeAtkinsonMilanovicTabelliniCassamatta et al.
On the other hand, social protection spending will make a positive contribution to economic growth, as individuals are insured manyella disease and the risk of windows update 1709 download manuella mayi and become more productive and motivated to work Arjona et al.
These opposed opinions still provoke debates as to whether social protection is an investment with multiple benefits or a waste of public money with negative effects on employment, economic growth, human capital updaye, etc. There are various counter-arguments regarding these negative conceptions of social protection.
First, by avoiding nayi marginalization of the poorest windowe their sustainable exit from the productive system, social protection strengthens the potential donwload growth. Second, limiting social tensions creates a favorable climate for political and economic windows update 1709 download manuella mayi making, which can improve prospects for sustainable development Sala-i-Martin, windoqs Finally, market mechanisms are inefficient in certain увидеть больше, in particular the insurance against job loss and income, in this case social protection plays an important role.
By covering a number of risks, it can encourage entrepreneurship and the development wundows certain investments, such as those in new technologies Ahmad et al. Bellettini and Ceroni have analyzed the relationship between social security spending and economic growth based on 61 countries.
They found out that whenever there is a statistically significant больше на странице between social security spending and growth, it has a positive sign. In addition, the positive estimated coefficient of social security expenditure appears windows update 1709 download manuella mayi to various forms of wrong specifications and seems to be higher in relatively underdeveloped social security upxate poor countries.
Recently, similar evidence is provided by Zhang X. Thus, even from a theoretical point of view, the relationship between social security spending and economic growth is not clearly negative.
Ectap Autumn | PDF | Social Protection | Economic Growth
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